7Depending on which criterion one adopts—status of employment, the public or private nature of the employer, or how employees identify themselves—the contours of the population one means to study vary considerably. Another Look at Public–Private Distinction and Organizational Commitment: A Cultural Explanation. The seemingly fragmented nature of these sets of themes in reality reflects a dimension of the same relationship to the world that we might term lifestyle (Bourdieu, 1979, p. 56). 59This bibliographic overview suggests we should not too hastily abandon inclusion of this divide within what could be a European socioeconomic classification. In most European countries this means, a minima, jobs corresponding to certain positions or missions relating to national sovereignty: judges, military personnel, tax officials, customs officers, police, or ministerial employees. They showed that these reforms (decentralization, managerialization, increased supervision, employment at lower levels made more flexible, etc.) 17In Sweden, the public agents’ employment terms tend to come close to, or even to merge with, those in the private sector. The job level is added to this trio in order to distinguish between a priori attitudes and behaviors of the individual (e.g. ); the third is a combination of both previous methods: letting respondents rate the relative importance of and their relative (dis)satisfaction with certain motivational factors (e.g. Government Managers, Business Executives, and Organizational Commitment. But this observation is tempered by the fact that the vast majority of these agents are governed by rules and legal dispositions that do not fundamentally differ from their counterparts in the private sector. Human Resource Management, 21(2/3): 35–43. [Crossref] , [Google Scholar]; Buelens and van den Broeck); another is to let them rate the relative importance of motivational aspects compared to other factors (e.g. 19 Buelens and van den Broeck conceptualized organizational commitment as ‘the willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization’ (Steinhaus and Perry 1996 Steinhaus, C. S. and Perry, J. L. 1996. Both public and private sector employees have the right to work with a union representative as protection during workplace investigations. 2000. This form of loyalty to the public sector had previously been revealed in the case of France: an education spent entirely in state schools significantly increased the likelihood of doing a job in the public sector subsequently: for men educated in the state system, the probability of working in the public sector is 44% while it is 25.5% for those coming from the private system (Langouet and Léger, 1997, p. 114). American Review of Public Administration, 16(4): 288–302. Furthermore, these gaps are very comparable regardless of whether the countries are well advanced in terms of state reform or not (Giordano et al., 2011). pay, autonomy, working conditions), and work-related outcomes (e.g. In other words, the managerial turn does not seem to have brought the public and private sectors closer together in terms of remuneration conditions. The decline in bureaucracy has also occurred through the receding of a certain type of administrative authority in favour of greater weight being given to skills and thus cultural capital (Savage et al., 1992; Butler and Savage, 1995). This decline was particularly sizeable in the public corporations that were privatized (500,000 jobs passed from the public to the private sector). In particular, they observe consumption and leisure practices and identify three factions within the middle class: a group whose cultural and leisure practices are ascetic and mostly correspond to public sector professionals (teachers, doctors, and welfare state employees), a so-called “post-modern” group made up of private sector professionals and an “undifferentiated” group, in other words one whose cultural commitments are weaker and less distinctive, grouping mostly private and public sector managers (Savage et al., 1992, pp. There are various explanations for this disaffection. 31In Sweden, 50% of all women work in the public sector, while the proportion of men is 23%, representing one of the biggest gaps among European countries (Oesch, 2006, p. 112). Their situation is nevertheless more enviable than their private counterparts: women with similar educational qualifications are better paid in the public sector, while for men it is the private sector that is the better payer (Melly, 2005). Public Personnel Management, 5(1): 67–72. The 1986 decentralization law then led to the disappearance of the collective salary scale and resulted in 1989 in a framework agreement which organized Swedish public sector employee remuneration on the private sector model (ibid., pp. One thing is really good in Private Sector i.e. Lyons et al. Two principal arguments are advanced to justify not taking (public or private sector) status into consideration in the definition of class position. In a study of public hospital doctors faced with the introduction of private partners, a British sociologist was able to show that the modification of work structure in a more managerial direction only has a small effect on the doctors’ representations and beliefs. The closeness of a large proportion of professionals in the public sector is a result of the fact that those who belong to it rely principally on their cultural capital, capital that is largely dependent on the state that, through the education system, ensures its reproduction and its value. While they all seem to belong to the same world, the boundary separating them is in fact a very marked one, including the representations they have of each other: senior managers think of welfare professionals as pure idealists, while the latter see the former as the representatives of power (ibid., p. 763). 1974. Rainey 1983 Rainey, H. G. 1983. In Norway, public sector employees are even seen as swing voters for public sector reforms (Rattsø and Sørensen, 2004). general values) and attitudes and behaviors of the individual that are associated with his/her job (e.g. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. (2005 Stackman, R. W., Connor, P. E. and Becker, B. W. 2005. Latest publication on cairn or another partner portal. The age gap is also perceptible in the United Kingdom, although in a less pronounced way: the proportion aged over 50 in 2004 was 28% in the public sector and 25% in the private sector and, more particularly, the proportion of those aged 35–49 was 44% against 36%. Again in the private sector, where performance is king, the workload is much, but it keeps you active, this is missing in the public sector due to which the work sometimes becomes monotonous which creates boredom. Public Productivity & Management Review, 19(3): 278–88. 1974. age, income) accounted for the (lack of) differences found. 22Although the European public sector has undoubtedly been transformed over the past three decades, it would be wrong to concern ourselves only with the reduction in its size. 24Although governed by different legal regimes, the public salaried labour force in European countries was formed outside the rules of the labour market, notably on the principle of greater job security—considered firstly as a protection against politicians at the head of governments—and a remuneration system dependent on agents’ statuses and qualifications and not on the wealth they generate or the work they accomplish (Weber,  1971, p. 22). The trend towards a reduction of the number of civil servants can be seen as a massive decline of the public sphere in Europe or as a redeployment of statuses associated with public service missions. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email. 23We now want to address the significant differences that persist between the public and private worlds, drawing on sociological studies devoted to this question and based on quantitative statistics. The managerial reforms of states in Europe have redrawn the public sector boundaries, confirming a sharper divide between managers and middle managers or subordinate agents. These studies have nonetheless been included since: (1) hybrid organizations had been included in a separate (‘third’) subsample; and (2) separate analysis had been performed on the pure public and pure private subsamples. They are recruited on private law contracts and subject to general labour legislation in the same way as private sector employees. Traditionally, the votes of public employees go more to parties that support the maintenance of the welfare state and the defence of access to public goods,  while those in the private sector are more sensitive to the laws of the market and more exposed to the effects of international competition (Kitschelt, 1994). Know your employee rights in Washington state. 52The link between employment sector and political orientation can therefore take on different forms depending on each country. The administration is organized at two levels: central government, which includes the ministries and armed forces, and local government, which encompasses education, social services and the police. Bogg and Cooper assessed job satisfaction with a scale consisting of twenty-two items, organized into six subscales (including ‘total job satisfaction’). Of course, this vision is never established once and for all: it is the subject of struggles and called into question, especially since the New Public Management reforms.