The regulatory philosophy contained in the Clean Water Act is referred to as the command-and-control, or standards-and-enforcement, method. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. The Clean Water Act: 20 Years Later., America's Clean Water Foundation, 750 First Street NE, Suite 1030, Washington, DC USA 20002 (202) 898-0908, Fax: (202) 898-0977, Email: , The 1977 amendments, known as the Clean Water Act of 1977, authorized the U.S. Although the 1987 amendments contributed substantially to the CWA's mass, complexity, and breadth, they did not fundamentally alter the act's scope, except perhaps in the area of nonpoint pollution. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ." Encyclopedia of Public Health. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Online at, Sierra Club. § 1251 : US Code – Section 1251: Congressional declaration of goals and policy. Justice Souter rejected the claim that "discharge" was limited to this definition, opting instead to construe the word in its ordinary or natural meaning. 16 Oct. 2020 . Builder. When it became clear that Rapanos would not receive a permit, he had the land filled in with sand. The 1977 Clean Water Act endorsed the goals of the 1972 law, but granted states broader authority to run their construction grants programs. 113-121 Authorizations for appropriations to support the law generally expired at the end of FY1990 (September 30, 1990). Rather, Congress gave this responsibility to a new federal agency, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). , "Clean Water Act Of 1977" Houck, Oliver A. More than seventy changes were made in the existing law. Over the years, numerous court cases have addressed various issues concerning the wetlands protection program. . The proposal was eventually set aside after intense debate in both the House and Senate over controversial wetlands issues. Indeed, much of the nation's water quality infrastructure was built in the 1970s, and an issue for today's politicians in Washington, D.C., is whether to make a similar investment in bringing an aging system up-to-date. ." The 1977 CWA also modified the permitting process for point source pollution to minimize delays. In addition, pretreatment programs were to be established to control industrial discharges that would either harm the treatment system or, having passed through it, pollute receiving waters. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: Environmental Science: In Context. There has not been a major revision to the Clean Water Act since 1987, and many feel that a comprehensive reassessment of accomplishments and failures is long overdue. He argued that the current regulations gave the Corps too much discretion to classify land as wetlands but there was no need to establish a restrictive bright-line rule advocated by Scalia and the other three justices. The 1966 amendments also prohibited individuals from discharging oil into any navigable waters. Public concern grew so overwhelming that the United States Congress enacted the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 over the veto of President Richard Nixon. In addition, individuals may bring a citizen suit in district court against persons who are suspected of violating the NPDES permit process. Year of Clean Water 2002. In some cases, the EPA has relied on the Senate's views in developing effluent limits, but the controversy over what zero discharge means continues to this day. The task of politicians today is to discover more efficient means, including the development of new technologies, in order to achieve the objectives set forth in 1972. see also Environmental Movement, Role of Water in the; Environmental Protection Agency, U.S.; Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.; Legislation, Federal Water; Pollution of Lakes and Streams; Pollution Sources: Point and Nonpoint; Safe Drinking Water Act; Wastewater Treatment and Management.